Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Herbal Medicines l Dr. C. Sekar | #SangamTalks

so i have to read this mukuno foreigns are being used have been used by indian ayurvedic medicine for large for thousands of years and for treating the peoples with the mental problem parkinson paralysis etc all sorts of neurological disorders and i mean i mean this particular plant extract seed extract have been used it's not only in india this is the japanese encyclopedia there also there is a mention about this but when compared to ours and again depending on the place where it grows uh the quantity will be different level will be different and this is why you say three to seven percent and our soil and our weather is best suited for growing medicinal plants just mentioned was kabba sora or it is siddha medicine this was used very extensively in southern india especially in tamil nadu government of tamil nadu has distributed to all the people in the form of kasha and hot drink during the peak i mean during this pandemic period and there were a lot of claim by the siddha doctors that they could treat it hundred percent and there were no casualty [Music] the title for today's discussion is the scientific validation of traditional verbal medicines myself is a process and i'm working in a specialized department called department of bio electronics and bio sensors at alberta university in karakori this is one of the unique and very specialized department and there are only very few around the world and india is the one in our university and i've been working here for the past 12 years something i've written at the bottom in tamil that i will come to it later at the end also i have the same okay so this i just wanted to briefly tell something about my university which is uh before that which is located at the extreme south of uh india you could see that we are very close to sri lanka than the rest of the even tamil nadu as you could see here this place is karakoli we always refer to our place as the one close to rameshwaram because we are all very familiar with the rameshwaram and the university is named after dr alaka the gentleman the philanthropist was donated all his fortunes for cost of higher education in this part of india and he has been responsible for the establishment of the university and also a number of educational institutions and also a research institute called in our town next door is secrecy csir laboratory which is also originally sponsored and funded by him with land and lot money in those days in the early 50s so it's a state university basically it's completely state university it's not a private one the name is just because to acknowledge and recognize and respect the gentleman i was donated all both land and money the university is named after otherwise it's a state university and at the department i just briefly it's going to be i mean you will come across a number of scientific slides i assure you that it's not going to be i'm not going to discuss much of science but i'm going to introduce the concepts methodology and also the outcome which is essential so to substantiate my title that the scientific validation of the traditional medicine and before going into the detail i just wanted to briefly introduce my department biosensors and then how it is related to the current topic of validation of the health science so bioelectronics and biosensors as i just pointed out this is a very unique department and bioelectronics is nothing but the study of the electronics a branch of electronics which deals with the study of electric current bioelectric current that happens in all living organisms that that particularly in the human being to be very precise and to be very simple and every one of us have electricity within us this is so called bioelectricity the existence of such bio electricity within the living organism was established way back in 1791 by this medical doctor named luigi galvani in italy and since then this continues to be one of the very intensely investigated topic and even in 2013 there are publications in the same explaining how the electric current or bioelectricity plays important role in the formation of the filters and with the modern tools you see what you see here is the camera i mean the frog bioelectric by pattern that was obtained from the fitness of the problem so this is very important topic and to some extent and unfortunately our country did not focus much on this topic and now it is high time that because most of the modern diagnostic tools in medicine are based on this concept of bio electricity in the living organism particularly human being that we are going to focus so this is about bioelectricity and the other one is the biosensors biosensors are i i'll show it to the biosensors are nothing but you know the electronic devices for analytical devices which converts biological response into electrical signals that is the general definition but i always try to explain this with the sensors we that we are having every individual is having bio five senses we all know sight hearing taste tongue skin and nose these are the five senses or sensors biosensor with which we are connected to the external field this means enrollment this means we acquire all sorts of information from the environment and the message is passed on to the brain process brain goes command and we act accordingly so essentially these are the biosensors that we that is being try to you know to understand and also to duplicate that is the very objective or main purpose of starting a network in the area of biosensors the other typical example commercial biosensor that we give is the glucometer and pregnancy tester and there are number of such analytical devices that we use in daily life but you all might uh you know know one thing that there are number of about 20 percent of the indian population are projected to be diabetic and in another few years to come it is going to be 20 percent already a large number of people are diabetic and the number of research sensors are being used as in the form of glucometer at home to get to know or to screen the glucose levels and to my knowledge most of them are being imported including the product tester from elsewhere that the country has to focus in this area because not only a glucometer and frequency tester number of analytical devices are used in the field of diagnostics medical monitors and biowarfare and food safety etc and biosensors are gaining momentum because of its very selective rapid and the sensitive detection of the target analyte see in the past maybe 10 years 20 years but when you get to know about what the glucose level is or what the urea level or cholesterol level or any kind of anal such diagnosis has to be done we need to go we we have to give the sample blood sample and urine sample and wait for a few hours to one day a day to get to know the results but now almost most of the diagnosis are instead you get you get the results the in a few seconds sometimes so this all because of the development of the biosensors so i introduced this biosensor because these are the ones that i am going to employ for the scientific testing and validation of the herbal medicines or traditional medicines this is reason why i am introducing this in greater detail and also to emphasize the importance of the modern analytical devices so not only the defiant glutamate current other devices there are a number of places where the biosensors are playing key role for example the study of biomolecules and their interaction interaction diagnoses both clinical and laboratory drug development crime detection environmental quality control industrial process detection systems for biological warfare formative pharmaceuticals especially nowadays implanted and replacement of organs and also biosensors play key role in the field of agriculture food quality control and etc such an important field next so nowadays the focus is on the point of card devices the number of devices are coming to the market starting from the sensors which work on you know the portable sensors which are used you know you see the number of sensors that is already being used right from monitoring the physical health and etc etc i'm not going to detail because these are the ones which are already available in the market and many of us have started using it what i am going to talk about in the next slide is still though you know it though it looks like you know a lot has been done in the field of medical diagnosis and there is nothing that we need to do more but when we think like that in reality there are number of places where still work has to be done especially the neurotransmitter detection neurotransmitters are nothing but the chemical messengers as i told you all the informations or messages are collected from different outcomes when you look at this picture and then the message is taken to the brain and the brain command and accordingly we work and so this is why it is called chemical messengers neurotransmitters are the chemicals very small amount of chemicals of the order of microgram milligram picogram etc it's very very small nanogram level chemical but these small amount of chemicals are responsible for all our actions both physiological psychological emotional all sorts of actions and these chemicals for example dopamine and style pollen number of them i am going to tell them and they are all working very small for example this is the you know okay they are very small in quantity as i just pointed out they take care of all our actions you know starting from concentration energy alertness mood to control cognitive functions anxiety attention appetite aggression motivation pleasure happiness this dopamine is nowadays well known as epichemical serotonin and all these combined together they control what we are today both emotionally and physically physiologically so these compound these calm chemicals called neurotransmitters have to exist in the right proposition and as long as they are in their expected or right quantity we are fine but if there is any deviation as you could see in the previous slide say for example excess you see bulk dopamine less of austral colon and if there is accessible dopamine then what is required and the lesser past alkaline that leads to the symptoms of disease called schizophrenia or where the common name is depression which is again a common problem especially among the youngsters who are involved in the ide because of the day and night shift etc so what pressure etcetera so the reason is you know if there is imbalance is also a problem this is the point i wanted to mention and this year i just wanted to do one minute please for this nowadays no it is always very important before women do a slave please food is always important and our mind health is decided by mind else is decided by what we eat so this is why food is called as a factor which influences the mood to a great extent and nowadays there is a lot of research which correlates the food intake and the mind health and when a person happened to be yes i happen to have a psychiatric problem and food the kind of food habit that the individual is undergoing or taking is also taken into account for diagnosis and so for really useful diagnosis okay so for any any useful diagnosis we need to we need to know the precise amount of these chemicals for example again and nowadays what is being sold in the market you can come across in the google and other you know online platforms and also in the drug stores so-called happy happy chemicals are in the name of happiness the the claim is or the fact is when you take appropriate amount of these chemicals neuro chemicals from neurotransmitters dopamine and oxidase and serotonin and you are the individual is expected to be happy all the time so this means these are the chemicals which derives happiness from whatever you do or but there is a problem see for example if there is excess or uh as i just mentioned if there is an excess is also a problem if there is a loss of this chemical is also a problem meaning that the balanced hormone should be there and even in case for example serotonin today this is again a very important neuro chemical which influences the personality especially the happiness of the individual very much they work differently with men and women same serotonin level which is when it is well and the symptoms are different in men and women or kind of problem that the men and women undergo because of the same chemical are different man becomes you know adhd and a woman becomes anxious anxiety men become alcoholic women become depressed and men become anger and rudeness and this woman become emotional likewise there is a difference between the way these chemicals works in men and women and again depending on the age depending on the quantity that is success or that is secreted in the brain the personality is decided happiness level is decided our activist our memory power anything that you name out will be decided by these chemicals so it is very important that these chemicals have to be determined to be measured very precisely when you want to understand the mental health or mind health of the individual that is very important but in reality despite having many modern analytical diagnostic tools it is continued it continues to be very difficult to measure the precise quantity that is because of the complexity in the brain chemistry see brain chemistry is indeed complex that is because of the you know the the different chemical status of these chemicals for example we take this erosion is a amino acid that we get mostly between the food like cheese butter and milk and again some kind of some meats and through which we get our wind we intake l-tyrosine this is amino acid you don't need to worry about it but once it gets in with the assistance of one enzyme called tyrosine is hydroxylase it becomes yellow dopamine violated this is what is what i am going to talk about in the in the case of traditional medicine where it exists so it becomes yellow dopa yellow is the precursor for the document document we all know and nowadays that is the very important influential chemical for the happiness of the individual or there are not only happiness there are many other roles the dopamine plays and the dopamine becomes more epinephrine again with the help of the enzyme and norepinephrine becomes these are sequence of chemical changes that continuously happens in the human beings and especially even now when the psychiatric diagnosis are being done based on the symptoms and because there is no tool or there is no way that we can measure these chemicals precisely so still there is a big demand for developing for for the development of analytical devices in the form of sensors to get to measure this very precisely and now as i just pointed out because of the non-availability of the devices symptom-based psychologists use even psychologists and family members to get to know how the patient behaves and how the patient acts and then decide mostly it is qualitative not quantitative so the point now i just take home messages that we need to know the chemicals presence at any any time so this is a continuous process and this is the reason why erosion becomes and this is the reason why our moods keep changing we are happy sometimes we are normal and angry and then sad you know all this mood swing is governed by the change by such chemistry change so uh even if you happen to measure the in the individual these chemicals at a given time in another 10 minutes you do not know the individual is going to behave so this means chemistry must have been changed and so we need to have a device or maybe which can monitor the continuous changes and these kind of sensors are now being investigated very intensely as they know the the world is concentrating on the artificial intelligence and also another machine learning etc they are also sensors are very much required so our target based by looking at this literature we have decided to develop sensors using metal option nanoparticles that is how i get into this field and so we our idea was to develop sensors for every individual and or simultaneously at one time we want to measure all these chemicals then only will come to know plus minus so that is how we have started okay we we made use of nano oxide nano materials i'm not going to spend much on how we developed because this may not be this may not be you know interesting for all we made use of metal oxide one of them is tungsten oxide okay this is how the preparation was done metallux and nanoparticles i have highlighted here was prepared under taken here as a electrode material for sensing so the material you take the blood we take the blood and prepare the serum and put it here and in this electrode cell and then we quickly measure in in a minute or so we quickly measure what are the neural chemicals and how much part of the neurochemical person and how much is the quantity that will be able to measure very quickly that is the advantage of this method so we have successfully applied and made use of you just remember one this one word here yellow dopa precursor for dopamine we have made or we have made a device to measure l dopa at physiological ph of 7.2 nano mole level very small quantity can be measured and over a wide range that is the only and our sensors are very selective because when you take a plant curve and take the extract and you try to find out what are the especially whether the levodopa is there or not and then so then selectivity is very important so we made sure that the developed sensor fulfill all the requirements of a good sensor for the specific application so with this i went to the comment this is just to highlight our sensor is better than the ones reported in the literature by other groups from around the world so with this we went to the you know i have a collaboration with neurological i mean doctors and also neurologists and psychiatrists and also psychologists because we have some centers of creative research center affiliated to our university and uh straight away i just told the doctor because of my excitement that we have developed a sensor which can detect levodopa that doctors could use it to diagnose the patient and after listening to me a doctor told a doctor only told doctors in fact a group of doctors told yes it is good but it's not enough for real practical applications because the changes in the neurochemical has to be monitored very continuously and for that we need to implant the small sensor has to be very small and in many cases where there are brain dead cases and we have explored all the possibilities for treatment and then we want to try how the chemistry changes and then we want to insert i mean implant the sensor so he they suggested that you can concentrate on a small sensor which is made up of material which are biologically compatible when it goes to the brain there should not be any poisonous or toxic effect or corrosion effect when the device is inside so they suggested that you make a sensor with better sensitivity and which can be implanted in the brain and can be more than it can be monitored for the changes in the you know brain chemistry are the changes in the neural chemical so that is the problem that we are given or we have been asked to work for that quickly i've chosen hydroxyapatite as the material for sensor along with the carbonyl hydroxyapatite is nothing but a bone material our bone is made up of hydroxyapatite the entire bone the nitric percentage about 70 percent is hydroxyapatite bone material that we have prepared in the laboratory in a very small nanoparticle form and obviously carbon nanotubes we add and both of them are biocompatible this means when i make a small sensor and when it is given put it in the brain it will not affect anything but at the same time performance so this is about hydroxyapatite the best example i have given here appetite is the you know material used for replacement especially the teeth replacement and also bone replacement when when there is a fracture or if something happens to the bone then the replacement is artificial bone we can say that we have prepared in the laboratory in the form of nanoparticle particles very small particles and similarly we have prepared the carbon nanotubes as you could see here in the laboratory and these materials have been working for quite long when i was in anna university i preferred carbon nanotube for my phd so it was easy for me to quickly prepare these materials and then this nano particles have been prepared and the composite have been prepared and this sensor is nothing but a electrode and on the top of which coating has been done and this is what we did and then you know you can presume that we have made sensors and made the measurement and compared all the sensors which are already available in the market in the literature and our sensor happen to be the best one that is because we were the first one to make the sensor with the biological material the other interesting aspect this sensor can be used at physiological ph ph is nothing but you know the the the ph biological ph of the human being is about 7.2 and if the sensor can work at this 7 neutral ph then we can use it for their clip of the measurement but unlike other people our sensor happened to be the best and published of people and then of course again we went to the doctor and the work you know is progressing and there were some other changes and early absence or dopamine serotonin and all these work is going on now i am taking you to the today's topic that is the scientific validation of herbal medicine that is how i happen to read this particular velvet seed plant the botanical name is otherwise in our country it is in our place it's in in tamil it's generally called as velvet seed plant because the seeds are beautiful velvet cut and yellow as they is the brand name or the chemical that is used to treat the people with the parkinson and other mind health issues okay and it is routinely being prescribed by the doctors the brand name itself is uh different but the basic chemical is levodopa that's the yellow so i have to read this mokuno purines are being used have been used by indian ayurvedic medicine for large for thousands of years and for treating the peoples with mental problem parkinson paralysis etc all sorts of neurological disorders and i've been i mean this particular plant extract seed extract have been used this is what i read then the logical questioning is this should contain l-dopa the simple question i mean the conclusion logical conclusion is the seed should contain levodopa in a reasonably good number among good amount then only this can be used as a tree i mean as a medicine herbal medicine or ayurvedic medicine to treat the neurological disorder that was the you know again the conclusion that then we thought of testing it and while reading this i also come across a number of important you know findings or important papers related to that for example some people are reported or this could contain leveled up four to seven percent but again remember we developed a sensor which are very simple and which can give results within few you know minutes and also very precise nanogram level can be obtained and that can be previously that can be used you know directly or it's a very small device it can be taken to the field but what other people have been done or what is the conventional technology is hplc high performance liquid chromatography mask spectroscopy these are very cumbersome technique it takes almost several hours and it's very expensive laborious and it needs chemicals and accuracy cannot be as good as what we get with the sensor so earlier with the kind of conventional technology people have reported that this plant seed may contain four to seven percent of levodopa and apart from that it also had some kind of hallucinate hallucinogenic tryptamines these are also kind of psychiatric you know problem and the chemicals which are responsible for and also it has phenols tannins and later we realize that this modern medicine health is derived from i mean this this plant seed that was the thing that we realized and and you know another thing when you look at or when you read this carefully i've seen because it is there in my place on the roadside and unnoticed and people and nowadays do not you know use it much and not understanding the importance of this we could see it on the roadside also these plans and another thing i just correlate with biosensor you know this this plant is a pneumatic acidic this means the insects cannot go and sit on that or eat this so this is very like unlike our spinach and other vegetables other plants which are hurt or which are destroyed by insects variety of insects then they it's condensed and these people the because of the toxic nature of this nature of this plant and this insects do not eat it do not bite it so what i infer from this this insects very tiny have a good sensor to detect or to understand that the certain plants only can be edible and some of them cannot be eaten and they make use of their biosensors and understand this happens even to the plant you never see a plant a goat i mean an animal a goat or a cow or any animal which is even in the forest eat some plant which are toxic and die whereas the human beings sometimes there are reports and they have eaten some food they will become poisonous and they are even killed toxic plants and so this is an indication that the biosensors in the plant i mean by biosensors in the animals and other small organisms work well and that they are naturally safe and they are stray away from the toxic environment or dangerous environment and this on the other end this also this is allelopathic activity is also reported this means this plant destroy other plants close by and they maintain or they are they survive and so these kind of small things but there is a lot of message from these plants here and there there are reports you know this is what i mentioned and if you can google and find out that this plant in our velvet's land plant has been practiced in india traditional medicine that has practiced in india since vedic times and it was a wonder for me that how our ancestors old people knew that this is this particular plant is of significance especially as certain chemicals which can cure mind problem or neurological problems that is really a wonder and this is a very established medicine it's not just you know recently investigated but for centuries or even longer this has been the medicine which is us which has been used by indians we can be proud of it and again i i'll come to that later this is the other problem i am in other chemicals and one more thing that i happen to read this also has some kind of small amount of serotonin serotonin i told you before you know this is very generally for treating the milk from a mental health problem this was used and this also has anti-venom capability this means when there is a scorpion string or other small insect biting and then when it is applied as a paste it cures likewise it has other antibacterial anti microbial antioxidant it's a full it's a reach of medicines different medicines and predominantly containing level dopa okay so we did it now i this is the reason why i introduced the development of the sensor for labor dopa we have developed a number of electrodes and we have tested the seed and also leaves you know in ayurvedic medicine especially with the medicine in our place so in a plant when you have a medicinal plant for sometimes we make use of the root and sometimes we make use of the you know only the stem or in some cases flowers or in some cases seed now i used to always have a question if i kind of you know out of curiosity i used to think if this plant is good for treating some disease why can't you take any part any portion maybe maybe a plant or maybe a leaf or a flower just like that but our people were so careful in choosing different parts of the plan for different problems or depending on the case so this was evident from the fact that you know the the levodopa quantity was different in the seed when compared to the other portion of the plant like other parts of the plant like we have tested seed and leaves and the seed obviously contained you know different quantity and leaves contain different see for example you take 5 grams of this with and you check our sensor can we can calculate not only the qualitative qualitative detection but also quantitative and determination is also possible precisely we can tell how much is the quantity present in that one amount so while comparing that we have realized that the quantity that is present in leaf and seed are different and this is this is an evident or this is a factor probably or this is the factor due to which different parts of the plants herbal plants are used to for treating different problems this is again very amazing and you have empty number large number of plants i say just as was introduced by miss tanya that india is blessed to especially our place we are very close to the equatorial line so western guards and a large number of large variety of plants are growing almost all through the year we have plants and many of them have potential medicine values that we need to pay attention look at it scientifically and tell to the world that yes ours is you know scientifically improved and in that way we'll be able to authorize our medicine this is the one of the objective that why i've chosen this topic so this is not only i i happen to read it's not only in india this is the japanese encyclopedia there also there is a mention about this superior but when compared to hours and again depending on the place where it grows uh the quantity will be different levodopa will be different and this is why you say three to seven percent and our soil and our weather is best suited for growing medicinal plants and this is the other thing that i have briefly mentioned that the plant seeds contain trace amounts of serotonin nicotine and protein and all these are neuro chemicals you know you know this neupotenus also and then part of neurochemical and the other allisonogenic tryptomines like this and all and all these chemicals so this is the reason why and again one more thing i wanted to tell you that we don't give always you know sometimes we prefer kashayam you know extract and sometimes it is directly given and then i i was just wondering why what makes the difference why you want to go for kashaya and here you see the the underlined line up to 85 percent of the lower topper can be extracted from a velvet seed plant by boiling and soaking for approximately 48 hours i happen to nowadays i read some of the siddha and ayurvedic and for every every medicine there is a description of how to prepare and they say 48 hours 30 hours 36 hours and you take one jar of water and you eat it until it reaches one-fourth or one-third and all this and how much of the effort that would have gone into optimizing such you know emphasize we are preparing uh this and this is the interesting point you know this is what is happening in the modern medicine allopathic medicine they take the seeds and do this extraction for quite a long and prepared ninety percent of the lowered of or 98 of the level and it is being sold to us in the in the form of tablets so again this is the point i wanted the efficiency of the process can be slightly improved by its approach again when you want to increase this 88 to 90 percent 99 percent some sodium bicarbonate need to be added these are the reason findings so we can be really proud that this plant is highly magic and we knew the importance of this for thousands of years and that is being used the other uh thing i just mentioned was or it is this is siddha medicine this was used very extensively in southern india especially in tamil nadu government of tamil nadu has distributed to all the people in the form of kasha and hot drink during the peak i mean during this pandemic period and there were a lot of claim by the siddha doctors that they could treat it hundred percent and there were no casualty the people who wanted to we took uh so next i i think i want to avoid this next please so this statistics i made me uh to do some research on this you know when compared to the rest of the world this is today morning i have collected now as of now this is the statistics uh so many you know crores of people confirmed cases death cases explode 221 lakh and 910 deaths and when you compare to the international average and also country specific coverage our number of death percentage casualty is very small and the percentage of recovery is very this is the only message i want to highlight by presenting this table this we have also witnessed at one point of time it was really indeed very severe and then now we are very comfortable and we were comfortable so the reason that when you look at the literature including who site in the peak days the reasons attributed for the higher recovery rate and lesser uh you know casualty in india were like this there are more young people in our country with the median average of 28.4 so that is the reason why they did i mean casualty was less and another thing they may i mean i'm not telling these are the things that i read and still available statistics are not reliable they say men are parallel and another important thing which hurt me and the many of us indians have a humanity because they are not clear so hygienic is not good here so obviously the humanities side that is what they said but still but this is the real fact would be our traditional food traditional medicine including siddha which play a major role in boosting immunity against infections this is the fact that in order to confirm in order to prove this empirical facts our traditional natural medicine must be tested using modern technology and they must be scientifically validated see for example even if you have not taken this double serum which i am going to talk about the siddha medicine which is made up of 15 herbs the few of them we are using on a daily basis in our food in may especially in south india in the rest of india too so this is this is basically kabba means this breathing related and the one which heals kabam cold is called the kabasvara churanam the extract from the choranam is so the point is it is made up of 15 different ingredients here here i have one the list on the other side you see the images and all of them have been are mixed in the equal proportions for example you know one gram each all the 50 when you mix you get 15 grams and the point which i highlighted here see in all cases we take different in some cases we you can see at the middle of the table but different parts are used this bed and then fruit root leaves against him root tuber root so this is what i just mentioned earlier that we we don't take all parts of the plant we take specific parts of the plant and this putin started from chipotle and this some of them are used in our food items you know and as a garam masala you know many of them are some of them are we are using it on a routinely i mean on a routine basis in the form of food we take intake now after looking at that i just started uh we have a group and we it's just out of curiosity there are questions uh you know like uh what is the science of pudding how does it really if it i mean how does it work if it is going to immune i mean improve the immunity and if it is going to cure the purana and other in fact in the original text it was not written as a medicine for purana viral infection the claim in the original text is that it can that it can occur or it can work out against virus and viral infection that was the original claim and now that they have applied it to the coronavirus so now the immediate question as i just pointed out why you want to have 15 levels and what are the chemicals present in the particularly after it becomes an extract in the form of discussion what are the chemicals present and what are the proportion of these chemicals you are taking equip proportion one gram each are you ending up with the equal professional more no what are the proportion of these chemicals and one more important aspect is this capacitor of cooling is served hot like many other traditional ayurvedic medicines you know you you are advised to keep it in the refrigerator in room temperature or colder temperature but this particular catastrophe is served hot the question is why what happens when you pull it to room temperature so how to determine the frequency how often can i there were a lot of you know saying like advice or a prescription like you take twice a day thrice a day you take one cup of kashaya or not and pregnant woman can be given or not all these you know there were kind of ambiguity you know in in the way it was prescribed and how does it work and what are the outer effects side effects and if it is really good you know then why it is not sold outside the india and even lithium india it is not uh becoming so popular i'll make it fast okay so this is what we did we have taken capacitor this is you see on the top and it was heated at different temperature in order to see the eating effect and we have prepared the caution and then in the parallel we have prepared a number of new sensors and directly tested it so that is what we did and to find out the major chemicals to begin with major point of hormone that is present we have used electrochemical sensor and also spectroscopic method for qualitative checking next so this is the first study we did we have taken the the discussion heart discussion we did you know this spectroscopic study uv visible spectroscopy very simple and the information that we have derived is there is a peak there is one peak at 271 nanometer which correspond to the ascorbic acid are nothing but the vitamin c so uh this is an indication that there could be vitamin c in large quantity and again vitamin c is sustained because this is not a simple chemical as we think it is really complicated chemical and it also varies and i mean with the temperature and other aspect so this is another experiment we did with the chemical so this is the capacitor of cooling air and this is the chemical ascorbic acid in the laboratory both of them are matching very well so we have come to the conclusion that the acid or nothing but vitamin c and ion i can all eugenol also people call it regen so our simple uh detailed uh you know review of the literature indicated that yes there is a possibility for ascorbic acid present vitamin c and original is there it is also possible thymol is possible from or a chain and ginger all from ginger we use nothing but the dried form of ginger so all these chemicals are expected to be present based on the literature and the one difference is that we are prepared to extract using water because we are drinking taking medicine in the form of water but many of the characterization are conventional you know steady with this independent plant there are helps were done by using methanol or ethanol extract so but we wanted to be very practical so as it is served in the form of discussion we have taken and did all this okay so this is the experimental procedure which i already explained it's not very important now we know that we have developed a new sensor for uh investigating new series of sensors for investigating the capacitor this is the only next message next for this only message next slide please so we did the series of studies we could estimate the quantity of ascorbic acid in a given amount of liquid capacitor for putting air and that varies from micro mole to millimole right you see there is a possibility depending on how much you drink there can be a small and high concentration so we need to develop a small sensor which can detect the gold range see for example glucometer if it is a normal person 80 to 120 for a diabetic one diabetic two it varies up to 300 400 like that and also below sugar patient it goes down to 70 i mean 80.

So this means the sensor or glucometer is able to detect the entire range in the same way we have developed this sensor which can detect the whole range which is present with this we could calculate this calibration crop and we can calculate and come to know how much i ascorbic as it is that how much original is there etc so the limit detection limit is nano mole level very very very small level also we can determine and these sensors are very rugged and we can use it number of times and also it is very selective and can be repeatedly used this means we have developed a device which can be now made like a glucometer you would say you paid 10 to 20 rupees for measuring the glucose but when you go for conventional way of testing you pay 100 rupees 200 rupees etc and the same way this electro hour sensor can do i can be used at a very low cost and quick results can be obtained similarly we have developed another sensor based on iron oxide this may again one sensor cannot give all because we are using 15 different uh you know herbs so we wanted to develop more and more of them here another sensor with the iron oxide can tell how much ginger all how much thymol is there uh ginger and adjust this is just to ensure that the measurements are perfect are reliable and reproducible you see the another advantage that i wanted to tell you this one sensor can determine both digital and timer so this means you don't need to one sensor see if there is only one if you take chukku only and want to know how much gingerol is there we can use this and you in some cases you take the ajwain and then you mix them and there what is the quantity percent that also we can determine this is what i mean simultaneous this means in using one sensor we can get more and even we have developed two three and they now the the workforce like this you develop five six sensors and get to know major chemicals i mean if i say only four or five chemical it's not the only chemicals present we have done mass spectroscopic analysis and found that there are about 200 different chemicals percent but all of them are very very small and some of them do not have any medicinal value do not have any impact on the human health also so we are concentrating on the major chemicals major phytochemicals present on that so this is for kavasarov we did this experiment you see from 500 micro say 50 microliter to 400 it keeps on increasing so this means when you take 10 ml you take certain amount of ginger alpha mole and see why one can ask a question this thymal regional ascorbic acid and all these are edible eatable and what is wrong if you take little more so that you can ask but there are even particularly original if it happens to be excessive and then the whole recommended level it is going to harm the liver and kidney so any chemical for that matter especially these chemicals even if it happens to be edible tamil in tamil we say alaba miranal amilda mum you know very special food amazon if it exceeds the limit it's going to be a poison so we need to know how much we take so that is the reason why i emphasize that quanti i mean precise measurement of these chemicals are very important so we did it so this is the message from here so now uh this this question i just wanted to address why we wanted to drink hot and in every corner of the street uh during the peak corona days people kept this in the hot pot i mean especially in the the drums hot drums and it was out very hard with the in the stainless steel tumblers and that is the question very tricky question i asked so what we did is we have prepared very 60 degree 100 degree nearly boiling temperature and then we have started making measurement both spectroscopic and also electrochemical sensor measurement every 10 minutes every you know year 15 minutes every 15 minutes once we kept on measuring this and as you can see within first 45 minutes or so there is a lot of change in the chemistry and here it can be seen in the first 30 minutes you see this peak has come down and here also it is has come down so this means within first to 30 minutes lot of chemical changes takes place and it comes to another chemical state they simply i used to explain in the form of ascorbic acid reacting with metal ions becoming ascorbate what metal ions is potential is zinc zinc is very highly you know the probable trace element present in the capacitor zinc ion reacts with the ascorbic acid at where when it is really cold it becomes a reaction is completed and you get after it this means once you drink hot you get the desired effect it goes as it or if it becomes in a cold then your drink it is a different chemical it may not give you the desired effect medicinal effect so this is the reason why i mean why this was served in a very art this is very very interesting finding and nobody else have done this so far because other techniques cannot be used for doing experiments so rapidly and we did it and this was work is published in a good journal called food chemistry and many of them are published but this is recently published in a good chemistry with a good impact very high impact factor so we have demonstrated very nicely scientifically that indeed the capacitor of and i wonder is how our ancestors sitters are for that matter the one who proposed to drink this heart how he or she realized uh in those days yeah the the chemical changes that takes place so rapidly and it is so hard and that is the wonder and we need to really be proud that our people were so fine uh you know in all with the knowledge of these fine chemicals in those days and we need to appreciate and we all we need to follow it next slide so again but the problem nowadays is siddha medicine tamilnadu government has recently proposed in the last assembly that there is going to be a separate university medicine for traditional medicine there is going to be a separate university will be established and they will be working on i'm going to finish it soon this is going to be a previous life please it's going to be the problem with this yes there are very very good uh you know aspects and good things about our oil vedic medicine siddha medicine by the medicine and all the problem nowadays is the adulteration people really want to make quick make quick money and mix something something which is not in the prescribed level in the prescribed form for example if the seed is going to be expensive they put only leaves or roots likewise there is a lot of adulteration is happening and we need to know uh we need to have a quick method of checking uh all these ayurvedic medicine or traditional medicines and take measures to ensure the quality and for that this is possible now for example we have purchased four different products and did they experiment similar experiment as you can see if it happened to be a kind of modern medicine allopathic medicine or there should be kind of similarity or same result should be there if the chemistry is same but unfortunately we have seen all the four of them showing different behaviors so different results and one of them found to be really good and the other thing in this case in in the electrochemistry you can see that in some cases the diagonal is not there or very little is there and likewise the other chemicals also was not there in the desired or expected quantity this means uh very clearly that there is no uniformity in the composition and again this is supposed to be a fine powder when it is sold some people did made it fine powder and some of them just mix mix it and then did some small grinding and put it in the in the raw form and the solubility will be different extraction will not be the same with this with the different kind of so these these small small things and during the course of preparation uh and also quality need to be quality of the traditional condition need to be ensured if we want to really make if we want to really make and promote the traditional medicine to the modern day requirement next slide so we will continue to work on other sensors and for good analysis with the same concept next food quality especially adulteration good contamination and this is a really a serious problem that the country is facing now is excess usage of fertilizers and other pesticides and besides and again they are the other end preservatives and all these make us to eat a lot of chemicals which substantially influence the brain function as i just mentioned in the very beginning food is our mind so mind is nothing but the chemicals work i mean it's dominated or controlled by the chemicals chemistry so when you want to maintain the good health of the people mind health of the people next we need to pay attention on the on this aspect we also work on the sensors for uh pharmaceutical and other nutrition products with this i come to the conclusion and i voluntarily thank want to thank sangam for giving me an opportunity to present some of my thoughts and also with the allah with my scientific support and i also would like to thank all my past students and also the person scholars and also a number of funding agencies which gives money to carry out the project and with this i come to the conclusion and here i read this which is now very popular so our ancestors were so cautious the meaning is like just don't attend to your disease don't not only treat your disease but also try to find out the root cause of the diseases that is what it says no immunity you need to understand what causes what are the responsible factors for causing such diseases that has to be identified and treated for permanent cure that's the message i hope the country will know is already a number of groups have started working will focus more on this traditional medicine and come out with the acceptable and scientifically acceptable findings with this thank you all and if there are any questions or collaboration i will be happy to respond so krishna said recently it has been in news that and the government of india agreed to establish the who global center for research on traditional medicines using modern scientific experiments and methodology is there any progress about that means the doctors or researchers like you are being contacted or informed to collaborate or participate in these activities yes the indeed it's a good observation it's not only india many parts of india including the developed nations have been focusing on this and there is a demand for the expertise and also information from our country also at the national level i'm not sure what is happening but at the tamil nadu government level as i just mentioned the government of tamil nadu proposed to open a new start a new university exclusively for the traditional medicines it is going to come up soon in chennai and their research and development activities will be taken say this is an interdisciplinary area say i'm not a doctor actually i'm not neither a medical doctor nor a practitioner or a biola medicine i'm now analytical chemistry i can say though my background is from physics and you know information technology communication technology and all this nano technology but what is needed is the input from the interdisciplinary background like what i have and i'm sure that the government is going to make use of such people and come out with the you know more input and more knowledge and new knowledge on the old medicines old treasure you used to say it's in fact india it's a good observation i think it will be so that it gets noticed the next question from krishna is bio sensors made from the bio compatible mineral hydroxy hydroxyapatite as you prepared can we find it directly from other natural sources or food other than human bone or is it formed within human body from the food we eat this is you know it's a calcium phosphate now you take calcium and phosphate and during the formative days formative years bone is formed naturally okay and uh so that is why we take a lot of calcium rich food and uh because phosphorus is there and it is nothing but a hydroxyapatite is nothing but a calcium phosphate okay so there is a calcium mineral and phosphorus mineral and when the when the situation is coming when the environment is conducive enough then this is formed and in the laboratory this can be prepared you know synthetically by mixing calcium and the phosphorus and the appropriate ratio and allowing it to react under at certain ph and then eating again at a particular temperature i will be we are able to prepare and it's not only we and it is established technology now that it can be prepared in the bulk and also in the nano material namaste to everyone namaste i am your junior sir uh the title sir yes i was wondering uh when it comes to ayurveda because i think generally people have a uh myth or pre-pre-consumption that i already medicines etc do not have side effects but as you have already said that you know in ayurvedic well trustees etc sisters who are well versed with it would highlight that you know a person who is sensitive to this might have this side effects etc and uh i'm surprised the way even pharmacies cetera are even doctors are giving away for my country uh ayurvedic uh supplements um without uh you know telling cautioning you to you know look up the side effects so i would do the risk do you research properly before uh taking it and what's your view about that uh sir yeah first of all thank you for joining this should be really hard time for you you know because even the time reference is concerned thank you for joining the talk and your observation is true that say there could be side effects and the question is are there any side effects or not the first question is it could be minimal because most of them are you know some let's see for example when you look at the capacitor it is edible most of them are food body will accept and those cannot be accepted will be secret will be sent out will be dejected will be rejected by the organs that is one thing but at the same time i also emphasize that even in the the edible ones when it exceeds a certain limit when it exits certain limit beyond the then or when it is continuously exposed then it's a dangerous it's uh it's a so this is the reason say in in the ayurvedic or traditional medicine they give depending on the description like how long it takes to run allah someone period 10 days 15 days 45 days like that depending on the age and those experienced people and that being at the age sex and again the other practice date and the other practice medicine has to be the quantity that has to be taken has to be decided and if you personally go and take your self self-medication then many times or you go to the under experienced or people without the proper knowledge and if they happen to prescribe then there is a problem so this is the reason why i propagate now or the entire community that we need to know what is there in the ayurveda medicine siddha medicine like what is there in the allopathy then you can be very confident about yes these are the chemicals in small quantities even if it is in small quantities present in it and then we can confidently prescribe and you can and people also can take it very happily and that has to happen but so far especially with the people who have a rich knowledge of the lord which here with the good experience they have been prescribing the right quantity for the right people if that is the case there cannot be any side effect so i just wanted to get your personal view on i mean i don't know if you've read or researched there's this popular indian ayurvedic supplement that's been sold in fiji it's by the himalaya group i think himalaya brand and one of the supplements i've tried is ashwagandha from them and currently i have tried trying menta i think it's was but the problem is that the bottle does not give you much information and plus the prints on the what the company combination or ingredients are so small you cannot tell that if you're getting the right amount of this particular indication so i was wondering what's your view about such brands see the problem there are two it's a problem is of twofold one is that they want to maintain the secrecy of the composition if they tell what are all the components present in the quantity then it's not patented like allopathy medicine and not difficult to make you know it's easy to you buy a uh from the from the ingredients from the market you mix and then you make your own and you sell start selling in pg and then you will not be importing it from india so that is the reason they want to maintain for they don't want to reveal the actual composition with which the product is made up that is one thing the other aspect is also the finite information they are also not aware of i don't know himalaya is a big group and they if they have done enough research and found out what are the compositions present in it and in what this i'm not sure and for this uh you know reasons it's not this for me my opinion this has to be disclosed all the info you have the right to know as a as the consumer that you are going to eat and you need to know what you are eating what you are taking so this is supposed to be the case but i don't know how the law works with this particularly and yeah i know i've seen i have seen this but this is the find not only this in all the products and i think things have to change patenting copyright to the company i ask the copyright for the particular product and the others cannot sell without no proper approval and then they have the monopoly and otherwise if they tell everything about how it is prepared and what is the company now because of the urgency everything was disclosed and people sold it's one is one is to understand all the 15 then you mix it and make it at home like there are you know both the side of the issues and this has to be addressed in future i think we need to educate both the producer and also the consumer so that all the informations are furnished on every product this that is because you are consuming internally you are taking and you need to have uh you need to know what you consume this is my opinion in traditional medicines we are not much informed about the testing methods to take precautions or to detect any disease in earlier stage like in allopathy today were there any texts in ancient india which talks about the test or checkup methods or these testing methods so this is the question to me right okay okay i i just started reading i am really i could answer only based on my guess and whatever i read so far a lot of information about how it can be prepared how it should be taken and all these these informations are there but at the end of course you know there are some people who should not eat should not take that is also written for example pregnant women should not be provided with that and the kids should not be given and this informations are there but otherwise i'm not an expert to answer this that will be only based on my guess and i don't want to do that the material again about treatment resistant depression for example i think scene might help are there any other any other sort of ayurvedic remedies that could be possibly explored for treatment adjustment treatments resistant depression for example if your traditional antidepressants do not work to be very precise i am not aware of the other specific medicine because this is a sensitive issue before uh confirming i don't want to reveal but what i now propagate and i speak to especially the youngsters is food habit is changing very rapidly okay good habit to know like suddenly i'm not eating what my father and my father it's it's completely it's mostly very different from and this genetical uh changes you know i cannot accept the changes so rapidly genes cannot accept the changes so as much as possible for example simple example i told you this is why i introduced my research tyrosine is the amino acid so that is present in your meat especially red meat and again this cheese and other milk products and when your egg also contain thyroid and when you take a thyrosine amino in the form of food that acts as a precursor okay for uh deriving number of chemicals tyrosine becomes labeled of a level of dopamine it goes up likewise what i propose is that we need to eat mixed i mean uh just because of the availability of the food just because we love one particular food dishes and we continuously need only those unlike uh in the past it was not a rusev you need to eat all kind of food it's not only the favorite so in that way you are your body is provided with the variety of amino acids minerals which act as a precursor for synthesizing a number of chemicals complex chemicals which influences the brain constant so i would i nowadays every meeting i tell especially the students that don't go only for the fast food you eat some of the traditional importance sometimes you may not like it but it is important for your body so you see because of the you know market driven uh economy and tv and so many social medias continuously giving a lot of advertisement on specific foods and nowadays we are not deciding what we eat and it is also influenced by other sources so my recommendation for you you take nuts for slips basically a variety of nuts and you know this uh meat i mean food also traditional in the original form and then that certainly acts as ingredient for strengthening your brain that you will see this is a very broad answer i know very weird answer but recent research as i pointed out at one point of time and says collaboration with the uk and also australian psychology psychiatric doctors they say before diagnosing the patient before prescribing they also ask for the food habit the kind of food that the individual is eating on a penta regular basis that also is so i this is the only thing that i can say in fiji we have very i mean food habits are very similar to what is in india but one is the marked difference in what we cook with for example oil is much more cheaper here compared to ghee and butter [Music] curd etc as opposed to india i think that's one of the factors that is probably contributing to the lifestyle issues uh lifestyle diseases in fiji probably mental health as well and probably one of the problem issues is that like you said doctors should first focus on the nutrition and analyze the nutrition of the person then advise them accordingly and just just one last tidbit what do you see in the future when it comes to census iots and rt artificial intelligence you can maybe write a post later on if you don't have the time here right now yeah certainly it is going to have a strong influence on the health diagnosis and it will give a direct good feedback and the input to the doctors to diagnose and also prescribe because i vote is especially a number of i'm i'll just finish it within a minute to understand number of biot based sensors are being are going to be incorporated into our cell phones especially voc volatile organic with the the breath you know the axial breath that i can talk on a different platform exhale breath analysis every moment you breath out you know it is along with your carbon dioxide carbon dioxide about thousand five hundred chemicals are coming out every moment you breathe more than thousands established chemicals are coming out from the body every moment the individual breathes so this exhaled breath contents carries lot of information about the health of the health status of the individual for example lung cancer can be diagnosed at the very early stage by detecting hydrogen cyanide concentration in the exhaled breath okay ammonia excess is an indication for the liver failure kidney problem ammonia excess gas likewise acetone can give information about your glucose concentration you don't need to really prick the blood and take the blood to check your glucose all these are going to be incorporated in these cell phones and the future smartphone will be the diagnostic mobile diagnostic device which will in turn be connected to the doctor and then the everyday morning you will wake up and give you a breath and information will go to your doctor and doctor will call our alum will go to the doctor if there is any deviation from the routine and then you are the individual will be called for investigation such kind of rapid advancement is happening in the area of iot especially their diagnosis and the future will be certainly will have a lot of positives in terms of diagnosis and obviously which houses are good for the treatment you

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