Greetings Friends, I am Dr. Rishab Sharma. In this video, I will discuss in detail about Typhoid Fever Especially I will discuss, by which lab test i.e. investigations typhoid fever can be confirmed Especially I will talk about the Widal Test Because there is lots of confusion in the public about this. And we will also talk about the treatment in which we will discuss which antibiotic is effective against Typhoid causing bacteria because antibiotic resistance is common against typhoid causing bacteria So we will discuss the antibiotics which are effective First, let's discuss which bacteria cause Typhoid Fever? Typhoid Fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi and, Salmonella Paratyphi A and B Next, we will talk about how typhoid fever spreads and what are the symptoms? So the mode of transmission of Typhoid Fever is ingestion of contaminated food and water And sometimes the cook who make your food they don't wash their hands, and without washing their hands their cook your food And they also leave the food under cooked And because of the ingestion of this undercooked, contaminated food Typhoid Fever spreads in the public And after 7-14 days of ingestion of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria the patient starts developing symptoms of Typhoid bacteria And the most common symptom is fever And the fever is also of a special type And its called as Step ladder fever And in this fever, the temperature rises as the day progresses and then in the morning, the temperature falls It follows a peak and trough pattern The fever plateaus after reaching 103'F-104'F The patient also develops pain in abdomen especially in the right upper quadrant patient feels severe colicky pain Patients may also have frontal headache, fatigue, anorexia, dry cough So these were some symptoms which will develop in the first week Besides this, 3-4 Rose spots develop in the patient Especially these develop in the lower chest and in the upper abdomen And they gradually resolve in 3-5 days And in the second week, the pulse rate of the patient slows down which is called as Bradycardia Besides this there fullness of the abdomen And the spleen, which is present on the left side….it softens And in the third week, diarrhea develops And diarrhea, in it is called Pea Soup Diarrhea which greenish colored, liquid in consistency and foul-smelling Besides this, in the third weed patient's appetite decreases, and he/she develops anorexia and weight loss So these were the symptoms Next, we will talk about the investigations The tests by which Typhoid Fever is diagnosed First I will talk about the Widal Test Widal Test is a very cheap investigation and it's now available even in remote villages And Typhoid Fever can be easily diagnosed by it.
Widal test is of 2 Types Slide Test and Tube Test The Widal tube test is better than the Widal Slide Test And you should get a Widal Tube Test done to diagnose Typhoid Fever So Typhoid Fever is said to be confirmed using the Widal Tube Test when Anti TH Titre/Anti H Antibody Titre is greater than 1:160 Anti TO Titre/Anti O Antibody Titre is greater than 1:80 So I am repeating once again, get Widal tube test to diagnose Typhoid Fever and Anti TH Titre should be greater than 1:160 and Anti TO Titre should be greater than 1:80 For the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Besides, there are 2 drawbacks of Typhoid fever First is that Typhoid Fever is positive only after 7-14 days of infection This one of its drawback The second drawback is that in Endemic area where Typhoid fever is common in the public in these area Anti TH Titre and anti TO titer is raised and these titers are found in the range of 1:40 and 1:60 Because of this confusion develops in the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever There are also other tests to diagnose Typhoid Fever One is blood culture Blood culture is a very good test, very sensitive test And this test comes positive in the first week of infection For blood culture more than 3 large-volume samples in which more than 20 ml of blood is taken This blood is pushed in the culture bottles And Typhoid bacteria, Salmonella Typhi grows in these bottles Besides, bone marrow culture, urine culture, and stool culture are also used to diagnose typhoid fever Lastly we will talk about the treatment of Typhoid Fever And the Typhoid Fever patients should never ever defer their treatment waiting for lab tests to confirm diagnosis This can be very dangerous And many severe complications can also develop in the patient in this time and it can even be fatal for the patient So whenever the Doctor suspects by clinical signs and symptoms that patient is suffering from Typhoid fever And he/she has also advised you treatment Then you should immidiatly start that treatment, you should not wait And this a very important point In the treatment, antibiotics play a very important role And in mild cases where complications have not developed, oral antibiotics are used in such cases which includes Azithromycin, Cefixime.
These are very commonly used and are very effective againest Typhoid Fever And Fluoroquinolones like Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin are also used in the treatment In severe cases, complicated cases IV antibiotics i.e. antibiotics given through veins are given. These include Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Aztreonam, Meropenem These antibiotics are very effective againest bacteria of Typhoid Fever And patient also needs symptomatic treatment in Paracetamol is given which is useful in treating fever, headache and bodyache Besides fluids through oral and IV route is given Besides steroids especially Dexamethasone play a very good role in management of severe, complicated cases And chances of mortality decrease by the use of steroids But there is still an going debate regarding the use of steroids. And in some complicated cases where the intestine of the patient has ruptured, perforation has developed, In such cases the patient may require surgery And now I will talk about Diet Patient should maitain hydration status and electrolyte levels within normal range And for this the patient should take lots of liquids like lentil water, chach, coconut water Patient should have them Besides patient can have soft diet like Daliya and Khichdi.
Patient can have them. And after getting treated or after discharge patient should remain in contact with the doctor, because it has been found that even after 3 months of getting treated or getting discharged patient had developed severe complications. So the patient should be in touch with their doctor And if talk about prevention then the vaccine againest Typhoid fever has been developed And you can take it after consulting with your Doctor And if have to go to an area where typhoid fever is very common then also you take this vaccine And a video related to Typhoid vaccine I will share in near future The link of that video, I will share below in the description sectio So this was some knowledge related to Typhoid Fever Stay safe, Stay healthy And most importantly be happy Thank You, Take Care